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Contents:
  1. The Rise of Democracy (1820s—1850s)
  2. History of Philadelphia
  3. Spain - Government and society | backporsiohaspzi.cf

To decide as to the greater or less value of the figures given respecting the Indian population of a territorial division, in the absence of a regular Census, these elements of criticism must be taken into account.

The first of the statements of Indian population referred to, dates from It was prepared by a Jesuit missionary, and inserted in the Relation of that year, being the first of this series of admirable letters which constitute the most valuable source of information for the history of the early days of Canadian colonization. The country inhabited by the tribes mentioned in that Relation , who all belonged to the great Algonquin family, afforded good hunting and superior fishing. Lawrence in the Provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec, and the eastern watersheds of that region.

They were about 3,, and their territory then covered a superficies of about 45, square miles English.

A Diverse Population

Lawrence, taking in that part of the valley of the St. Lawrence which fronts on the course of the St.


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John River and tributaries. They numbered about 2,, and their territory covered, then , a superficies equal to about 40, square miles ; but their maritime fisheries were less extensive than those of the Souriquois. Lawrence ; they numbered 3,, and their territory covered a superficies of about 55, square English miles.

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Their coast fishing, although of great value, was much less important than those of the Souriquois and Etaminquois. The Montagnets belonged to the Abenakis family, and their hunting grounds were in the mountainous parts of New Hampshire and Vermont, and in that part of the Province of Quebec now known as the Eastern Townships, and the District of Beauce. They numbered 1, souls, and occupied about 20, square miles of country, but without fisheries.

The two other statements of Indian population, given above, relate to the years and The first is a memoir deposited in the Paris Archives , written by an officer of the French Government, whose name is not given ; the second is by Sir William Johnson, and forms part of the English documents entitled, Plantations General Papers. It is very interesting to compare these two estimates of the number of Indians, made in respect to the same tribes and the same territories at an interval of more than a quarter of a century.

We give the summarized table of the information contained in these two memoirs, grouped in such a way as to admit of comparison. Table made up from the Memoirs of and on the Aboriginal population of certain territories in North America, now situated partly in the United States of America and partly in Canada. Francis Indians. Thus the Algonquin races of Canada increased by 9, souls, the Hurons by , and the Iroquois of the United States by 5,, whilst the numerous tribes last mentioned have decreased by 16, The Iroquois of Canada appear to have suffered a diminution of 50 during the same period.

In order to compare these two memoirs, there must first be added to the sum contained in the English memoir, the numbers representing the clans not enumerated in it, namely : The Abenakis of the St. John River, warriors; the Illinois, warriors, and the Sioux-Assiniboines, 2, warriors ; in all, 3, warriors, representing a population of about 18, souls. Adding this number to the total amount of 59, for the year , there is shown a total of 78,, as against 79, for the year , or a decrease of 1, on the whole of this population.

From to the aboriginal population mentioned in the two memoirs had, as a whole, undergone a total diminution of upwards of 1, souls. But it must be remarked that this diminution as well as the changes to lesser numbers caused by migrations took place in the most densely populated territory, where the hunting grounds were 14 miles square per head. The population on the Canadian side, hunting over 37 square miles per head, increased by about 9, souls during that interval, while the other, on the American side, taken as a whole, had lost 10, In the United States again the tribes who cultivated the land and were possessed of 28 miles per head of hunting ground, have increased when the others diminished.

The increase on the Canadian side is due principally to the immigration from the United States ; for it is a fact, ascertained since the North American tribes have been known, that they, in the long run, and taken as a whole, remain stationary, in point of population, when they do not diminish.

The immigration took place in consequence of the territories on the Canadian side having been depopulated by the wars of extermination of the preceding period. By the Census of , an exact enumeration has for the first time been made of the aboriginal population within the limits of the Province of Prince Edward Island , of Nova Scotia 1, , of New Brunswick 1, , of Quebec 6, , and of Ontario 12, , showing a total for these five Provinces of 23, However, as the Census has recorded this population only by localities and not by tribes, it has been thought desirable to supply this deficiency, and at the same time to try to establish the number of the indigenous population throughout the whole extent of the British possessions in North America, together with the approximate extent of the superficies inhabited by each of the tribes, or groups of tribes ; the result of which will be found summarized in the Table which follows.

The information has been drawn from the Census of , from the writings and notes of the missionaries ; from reports, works and memoirs published at different periods, and from details received, viva voce , from persons who have been in intimate relations with these clans. The part of the indigenous population, of which the least is known, is that in British Columbia. For this reason, as is usual in such cases, their numbers have almost always been exaggerated. The Natural History of the Varieties of Man. The part which is now best known, outside of the limits of the older Provinces, is that on the territory of the Athabaska-Mackenzie, thanks to the admirable paper published in by the Reverend Father Petitot, Oblat missionary.

It would be impossible to enumerate all the names given to the indigenous tribes and sub-tribes of North America, nor the languages that have been counted out of dialects of the same mother tongues, very frequently the same small groups of nomads have had different names bestowed on them, from their having been encountered in different places by different travellers.

The names given in the following Table are those sanctioned by history or by the authority of ethnographers to mark the distinct groups ; there are added to each, letters indicating the race to which the tribe belongs. All the aboriginal families of British America are divided into four races.

These four races are : 1. That of the Algonquins, or the Algic race. That of the Huron-Iroquois. In the following Table, letters are placed after the names of the tribes, to indicate to which of the four great races each tribe belongs ; AL. For the Algonquin race ; H. For the Huron-Iroquois race ; D. The word villagier has been made to indicate the mode of living in villages which has been adopted by several of the aboriginal tribes or sub-tribes in the settled parts of the country. These villagiers almost always engage a little in hunting and fishing, in cultivation of the land ; but most maintain themselves chiefly by the exercise of various industries, such as the dressing of skins, the making of snow shoes, mocassins and fancy articles prepared by the women.

In certain places the men work in the lumber shanties, and serve as guides and carriers in explorations or hunting excursions. Some have become well-to-do farmers. The small Map which accompanies this Table is given to enable the reader to easily form an idea of the territory occupied by each aboriginal group, of the relative extent of the hunting grounds and of their situation as to the maritime shores or fisheries of the interior. The figures of reference pertain alike to the Table and the map.

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It is scarcely necessary to say that the hunting grounds of each Indian tribe are not actually marked off by precise and invariable limits, like those which divide the Provinces of an organized country from one another, and that, therefore, the figures, beyond those taken from the Census of , are only approximate. As to the calculations of the superficies, they have, in common with the rest of the work, been very carefully made, and it is confidently believed they do not yield in point of exactitude to the estimates made from time to time which all necessarily vary of the superficies of the unsurveyed regions of the American continent.

From the total superficies, shown in the Table by tribal occupancy, and given in detail hereafter, for each Province, the bays and the great estuaries have been eliminated. Newfoundland and Anticosti, which have no aboriginal population, are not included in the superficies of the Table, but are afterwards mentioned ; Newfoundland separately, Anticosti in the superficies of Quebec. Table of the Aboriginal Population of Canada, with the Superficies in square miles of the hunting and fishing grounds occupied by the different tribes, the whole referring to the year It will be seen that taking the whole of the aboriginal population of British North America, including the few tribes who live chiefly by agricultural and industrial pursuits in the settled Provinces, as well as the tribes placed in exceptionally unfavorable conditions in Arctic climates, the mean inhabited superficies is 34 square miles per head.

Eliminating from the calculation these two extremes in the scale of comparison, the mean falls to about 25 square miles per head, the minimum being about 10 square miles per head ; the maximum being found in the most rigorous climates, and the minimum exclusively where there are abundant sea coast fisheries. In the best hunting grounds, with a temperate climate, in the absence of extensive fisheries and of cultivation of the soil, the increase of the Indian population to a larger number than 1 inhabitant to 15 square miles causes misery and disease, or incursions upon neighbouring territories and consequent warfare.

Sir George Simpson, in , in his replies to the Special Committee of the British House of Commons appointed to enquire at that date into the affairs of the Hudson's Bay Company, again points out Page 58 of the Report the fact of these periodical oscillations of increase and decrease among the Indians. He points out that the tribes of the Western woods, after having been decimated by disease for several years, were at that time passing through a period of increase, whilst the prairie tribes were at the same time suffering from decrease caused by tribal wars and disease.

The information given in the preceding Table and the small chart accompanying it, may be thus summarized :. As this Memorandum was furnished by the Hudson Bay Company, it possesses such importance that it is deemed desirable to reprint it here in full. It should be remarked here that the fifteen years which have elapsed between the date of the preparation of the Hudson Bay Company's Memorandum and that to which the Table in this work refers have not produced, in fact, any notable change in the number, or mode of life of the aboriginal populations depending on hunting and fishing in the unsettled regions of British North America.

Since, the relations of the Hudson's Bay Company with the American territories have been altered. The following estimates have been compiled with great care, from a mass of documents and the actual personal knowledge of several of the Company's officers, tested by comparison with published statements, especially those presented to Government in by Messrs. Warre and Vavasour, and those of Colonel Lefroy, R.

The memorandum is reprinted here as it is, without taking account of a slight difference between the figures in detail and the addition. This slight difference may either arise from an error in details or addition it cannot therefore be corrected, and is, besides, of little consequence.

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In the examination of this memorandum it is desirable to consider separately the population living to the East from that living to the West of the Rocky Mountains, as represented in the aggregate contained in the summary at the end of the memorandum. With respect to the East, the number of 35,, representing the population of the woods outside of the Provinces , is evidently overrated.

Sedan chairs weaved their way up narrow streets as they conveyed wealthy passengers to their places of business, while thousands of pedestrians hurried to and fro. A scene of confusion is depicted here as a sedan chair topples over in the night-time gloom of an urban street. Usage terms Public Domain 18th-century city life was frequently confusing and chaotic.

The network of narrow allies and lanes, that had remained largely unchanged in many towns since medieval times, proved increasingly inconvenient to horse-drawn vehicles, and, like today, many cities were prone to traffic congestion. In , for example, hundreds of people were stuck in a traffic jam on London Bridge that took nearly three hours to clear.


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  8. Rises in population added to the sense of confusion in many British cities. Crowds swarmed in every thoroughfare. Milkmaids, orange sellers, fishwives and piemen, for example, all walked the streets offering their various wares for sale, while knife grinders and the menders of broken chairs and furniture could be found on street corners. Depiction of a street seller offering colourful boxes, from William Craig's Itinerant Traders of London , Usage terms Public Domain People crowded around the windows of print shops displaying the latest satirical cartoons, or waited outside lottery offices for the results to be drawn.

    Others gathered to watch politicians make speeches at election time, or to watch bare-knuckle boxing matches. House fires, accidents, fights and public executions, amongst an array of other urban spectacles, all drew huge audiences whenever they occurred, and added to the sense of excitement that was part of daily city life. Many 18th-century towns were grimy, overcrowded and generally insanitary places.